Pema Gyaltsen set himself ablaze on Saturday outside a Buddhist temple in Sichuan province, the Tibetan government in exile in India said, adding that the unmarried 24-year-old "called for the return of His Holiness the Dalai Lama to Tibet and for freedom in Tibet."
The group said he was the 146th Tibetan to self-immolate since 2009.
Local police said they were unable to confirm any information on the case.
Rights group Free Tibet said Gyaltsen "was unable to complete the self-immolation before the police arrived and looked to have been alive when he was taken away."
If he survived, Gyaltsen would "most likely face harsh treatment in detention with no guarantee of medical treatment, followed by a long prison sentence," the group said.
Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama fled into exile after a failed uprising in 1959. Tibetan monks within China have reported a campaign of government intimidation targeting the family and friends of those who set themselves on fire.