Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy imposed direct rule on the region of Catalonia after it held an independence referendum on October 1 that Spanish courts had declared illegal.
The term of the minority government led by his center-right People's Party expires in 2020, but 55 percent of respondents in yesterday's survey said they wanted a ballot before then. The figure in a survey in October was 49 percent.
The survey was taken by pollsters Metroscopia for newspaper El Pais between November 6 and 8 as former Catalan president Carles Puigdemont - whose government was sacked by Rajoy - pursued his campaign for the region's independence from self-imposed exile in Belgium.
Authorities in Madrid have called an election in Catalonia for December 21.